1 SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
1.1 General Information
The Company is primarily in the business of manufacturing, purchase and sale of motor vehicles, components and spare parts ("automobiles"). The other activities of the Company comprise facilitation of Pre-Owned Car sales, Fleet Management and Car Financing. The Company is a public company listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the National Stock Exchange (NSE).
1.2 Basis for Preparation of Financial Statements
These financial statements have been brpared as a going concern in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in India under the historical cost convention on an accrual basis and comply in all material aspects with the Companies Act, 2013, applicable rules and other relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 and Accounting Standard 30, Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India to the extent it does not contradict with any other accounting standard referred to in Companies Act, 2013.
All assets and liabilities have been classified as current or non-current as per the Company's operating cycle and other criteria set out in the Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013. Based on the nature of products and the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash and cash equivalents, the Company has ascertained its operating cycle as 12 months for the purpose of current - non current classification of assets and liabilities.
1.3 Revenue Recognition
Revenue is Recognised as follows:
(a) Domestic and export sales on transfer of significant risks and rewards to the customer which takes place on dispatch of goods from the factory and port respectively.
(b) Income from services on completion of rendering of services.
1.4 Fixed Assets Tangible Assets
a) Fixed assets (except freehold land which is carried at cost) are carried at cost of acquisition or construction or at manufacturing cost (in case of own manufactured assets) in the year of capitalisation less accumulated debrciation.
b) Assets acquired under finance leases are capitalised at the lower of their fair value and the brsent value of minimum lease payments.
Lumpsum royalty is stated at cost incurred as per the relevant licence agreements with the technical know-how provider less accumulated amortisation.
1.5 Borrowing Costs
Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale.
1.6 Debrciation / Amortisation
a) Tangible fixed assets except leasehold land are debrciated on the straight line method on a pro-rata basis from the month in which each asset is put to use.
Debrciation has been provided in accordance with useful lives brscribed in the Companies Act, 2013 except for certain fixed assets where, based on technical evaluation of the useful lives of the assets, higher debrciation has been provided on the straight line method over the following useful lives:
Plant and Machinery 8 - 11 Years
Dies and Jigs 4 Years
Electronic Data Processing 3 Years Equipment
In respect of assets whose useful lives has been revised, the unamortised debrciable amount is charged over the revised remaining useful lives of the assets.
b) Leasehold land is amortised over the period of lease.
c) All assets, the individual written down value of which at the beginning of the year is Rs. 5,000 or less, are debrciated at the rate of 100%. Assets purchased during the year costing Rs. 5,000 or less are debrciated at the rate of 100%.
d) Lump sum royalty is amortised on a straight line basis over its estimated useful life i.e. 4 years from the start of production of the related model.
a) Inventories are valued at the lower of cost, determined on the weighted average basis and net realisable value.
b) The cost of finished goods and work in progress comprises raw materials, direct labour, other direct costs and related production overheads. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
c) Loose Tools are written off over a period of three years except for tools valued at Rs. 5,000 or less individually which are charged to revenue in the year of purchase.
d) Machinery spares (other than those supplied along with main plant and machinery, which are capitalised and debrciated accordingly) are charged to revenue on consumption except those valued at Rs. 5,000 or less individually, which are charged to revenue in the year of purchase.
I nvestment that are readily realisable and are intended to be held for not more than one year from the date, on which such investments are made, are classified as current investments. All other investments are classified as long term investments. Current investments are valued at the lower of cost and fair value. Long-term investments are valued at cost except in the case of other than temporary decline in value, in which case the necessary provision is made.
1.9 Research and Development
Revenue expenditure on research and development is charged against the profit for the year in which it is incurred. Capital expenditure on research and development is shown as an addition to fixed assets and debrciated accordingly.
1.10 Foreign Currency Transactions and Derivative Instruments
a) Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the exchange rates brvailing at the date of the transactions. Exchange differences arising on settlement of transactions are recognised as income or expense in the year in which they arise.
b) At the balance sheet date, all monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency are reported at the exchange rates brvailing at the balance sheet date by recognising the exchange difference in the Statement of Profit and Loss. However, the exchange difference arising on foreign currency monetary items that qualify and are designated as hedge instruments in a cash flow hedge is initially recognised in 'hedge reserve' and subsequently transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss on occurrence of the underlying hedged transaction.
c) Effective April 1, 2008, the Company adopted Accounting Standard - 30, "Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement" issued by The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India to the extent the adoption does not contradict with the accounting standards specified under section 133 of the Companies Act, 2013 ("the Act") and other regulatory requirements. All derivative contracts (except for forward foreign exchange contracts where underlying assets or liabilities exist) are fair valued at each reporting date. For derivative contracts designated in a hedging relationship, the Company records the gain or loss on effective hedges, if any, in a hedge reserve, until the transaction is complete. On completion, the gain or loss is transferred to the Statement of Profit and Loss of that period. Changes in fair value relating to the ineffective portion of the hedges and derivatives not qualifying or not designated as hedges are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the accounting period in which they arise.
d) In the case of forward foreign exchange contracts where an underlying asset or liability exists, the difference between the forward rate and the exchange rate at the inception of the contract is recognised as income or expense over the life of the contract. Exchange differences on such a contract are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in the reporting period in which the exchange rates change. Any profit or loss arising on cancellation or renewal of a forward contract is recognised as income or expense in the year in which such cancellation or renewal is made.
1.11 Employee Benefit Costs
Short - Term Employee Benefits:
Recognised as an expense at the undiscounted amount in the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year in which the related service is rendered.
Post Employment and Other Long Term Employee Benefits:
(i) The Company has Defined Contribution Plans for post employment benefit namely the Superannuation Fund which is recognised by the income tax authorities. This Fund is administered through a Trust set up by the Company and the Company's contribution thereto is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss every year. The Company also maintains an insurance policy to fund a post-employment medical assistance scheme, which is a Defined Contribution Plan administered by The New India Insurance Company Limited. The Company's contribution to State Plans namely Employees' State Insurance Fund and Employees' Pension Scheme are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss every year.
(ii) The Company has Defined Benefit Plans namely Gratuity, Provident Fund & Retirement Allowance for employees and Other Long Term Employee Benefits i.e. Leave Encashment / Compensated Absences, the liability for which is determined on the basis of an actuarial valuation at the end of the year based on the Projected Unit Credit Method and any shortfall in the size of the fund maintained by the Trust is additionally provided for in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The Gratuity Fund and Provident Fund are recognised by the income tax authorities and are administered through Trusts set up by the Company.
Termination benefits are immediately recognised as an expense.
Gains and losses arising out of actuarial valuations are recognised immediately in the Statement of Profit and Loss as income or expense.
1.12 Customs Duty
Custom duty available as drawback is initially recognised as purchase cost and is credited to consumption of materials on exported vehicles.
1.13 Government Grants
Government grants are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss in accordance with the related schemes and in the period in which these accrue.
Tax expense for the year, comprising current tax and deferred tax, is included in determining the net profit or loss for the year.
Current tax is measured at the amount expected to be paid to the tax authorities in accordance with the Income Tax Act and at the brvailing tax rates.
Deferred tax is recognised for all timing differences, subject to the consideration of prudence in respect of deferred tax assets. Deferred tax assets are recognised and carried forward only to the extent there is a reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date. At each Balance Sheet date, the Company reassesses unrecognised deferred tax assets, if any.
Minimum Alternate Tax credit is recognised as an asset only when and to the extent and when there is convincing evidence that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period. Such asset is reviewed at each balance sheet date and the carrying amount of the MAT credit asset is written down to the extent there is no longer convincing evidence to the effect that the Company will pay normal income tax during the specified period.
1.15 Dividend Income
Dividend from investments is recognised when the right to receive the payment is established and when no significant uncertainty as to measurability or collectability exists.
1.16 Interest Income
Interest income is recognised on the time proportion basis determined by the amount outstanding and the rate applicable and where no significant uncertainty as to measurability or collectability exists.
1.17 Impairment of Assets
At each Balance Sheet date, the Company assesses whether there is any indication that an asset may be impaired. If any such indication exists, the Company estimates the recoverable amount. If the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its recoverable amount, an impairment loss is recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss to the extent the carrying amount exceeds the recoverable amount.
a) The Company pays / accrues for royalty in accordance with the relevant licence agreements with the technical know-how provider.
b) The lump sum royalty incurred towards obtaining technical assistance / technical know-how to manufacture a new model/ car, ownership of which rests with the technical know how provider, is recognised as an intangible asset. Royalty payable on sale of products i.e. running royalty is charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss as and when incurred.
1.19 Provisions and Contingencies
Provisions: Provisions are recognised when there is a brsent obligation as a result of a past event, it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and there is a reliable estimate of the amount of the obligation. Provisions are measured at the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the brsent obligation at the balance sheet date and are not discounted to their brsent value.
Contingent Liabilities: Contingent liabilities are disclosed when there is a possible obligation arising from past events, the existence of which will be confirmed only by the occurrence or non occurrence of one or more uncertain future events not wholly within the control of the Company or a brsent obligation that arises from past events where it is either not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle or a reliable estimate of the amount cannot be made.
As a lessee
Leases in which a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases are charged to the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight-line basis over the period of the lease or the terms of underlying agreement/s, as the case may be.
As a lessor
The Company has leased certain tangible assets and such leases where the Company has substantially retained all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as operating leases. Lease income on such operating leases are recognised in the Statement of Profit and Loss on a straight line basis over the lease term which is rebrsentative of the time pattern in
which benefit derived from the use of the leased asset is diminished.
1.21 Cash and Cash Equivalents
In the Cash Flow Statement, cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand, demand deposits with banks, other short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less.
1.22 Segment Reporting
The accounting policies adopted for segment reporting are in conformity with the accounting policies adopted for the Company. Revenue and expenses have been identified to segments on the basis of their relationship to the operating activities of the segment. Revenue and expenses, which relate to the Company as a whole and are not allocable to segments on a reasonable basis, have been included under 'Unallocated expenses / income'.
1.23 Earnings per Share
Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Earning considered in ascertaining the Company's earnings per share is the net profit for the period and any attributable tax thereto for the period. The weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period and for all period brsented is adjusted for events other than the conversion of potential equity shares that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in resources. For the purpose of calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period is adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares.
2 Outstanding commitments under Letters of Credit established by the Company aggregate Rs. 2,029 million (Previous year Rs. 2,155 million).
3 Estimated value of contracts on capital account, excluding capital advances, remaining to be executed and not provided for, amount to Rs. 20,295 million (Previous year Rs. 19,950 million).
4 Consumption of raw materials and components has been computed by adding purchases to the opening stock and deducting closing stock physically verified by the management.
5 The Company was granted sales tax benefit in accordance with the provisions of Rule 28C of Haryana General Sales Tax Rules, 1975 for the period from August 1, 2001 to July 31, 2015. The ceiling amount of concession to be availed of during the entitlement period is Rs. 5,644 million. Till March 31, 2015, the Company has availed of / claimed sales tax benefit amounting to Rs. 2,626 million (Previous year Rs. 2,585 million).
6 Previous Year's figures have been recasted / regrouped where considered necessary to conform with the current year's brsentation.
For Price Waterhouse
Firm Registration Number: 301112E
Membership Number - 077779
KENICHI AYUKAWA Managing Director & CEO
TOSHIAKI HASUIKE Joint Managing Director
AJAY SETH Chief Financial Officer
S. RAVI AIYAR Executive Director (Legal) & Company Secretary
Place: New Delhi
Date: April 27, 2015